The Search and Rescue System:
System organization (Global SAR system organization).
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the International Maritime Organization (IMO) co-ordinate, on a global basis, member States’ effort to provide search and rescue (SAR) services. Briefly, the global of ICAO and IMO is to provide an effective world-wide system, so that wherever people Sail or Fly, SAR services will be available if needed. The overall approach a State takes in establishing, providing, and improving SAR services is affected by that these efforts are an integral part of a global SAR system.
A basic, practical, and humanitarian effect of having a global SAR system is that it eliminates the need for each State to provide SAR services for its own citizen wherever they travel worldwide. Instead, the global is divided into Search and rescue Regions (SRRs) , each with a Rescue Co-ordination and service Centre (RCC) and associated SAR services, with assist anyone in Distress within the SAR without regard to Nationality or circumstances.
National and Regional SAR System Organization
States, by being party to the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) convention, the international convention on Maritime search and rescue, and the convention on International Civil Aviation Organization, have accepted the obligation to provide Aeronautical and Maritime SAR co-ordination and services for their territories, territorial Seas, where appropriate, the high Seas. SAR service are to be available on a 24 hour basis.
To carry out these responsibilities, a State either should establish a National SAR organization, on join one or more other States to form a Regional SAR organization. In some areas an effective and practical way to achieve this goal is to develop a regional system associated with a major Ocean area an continent.
The SAR system has three levels of co-ordination with:
a. SAR coordinators (SCS);
b. SAR mission coordinators (SMC);
c. One-scene coordinators (OSCs)
SAR coordinators (SC) have the overall responsibility for establishing, staffing, equipping, and managing the SAR system, including providing appropriate legal and funding support, establishing rescue co-ordination centre (RCCs) and rescue sub-centre (RSCs), providing or arranging for SAR facilities, coordinating SAR training, and developing SAR policies. SAR coordinator (SCs) are the top level SAR managers; each State normally will have one persons or agencies for whom this designation may be appropriate. More information on SAR management responsibilities may be found in the International aeronautical and Maritime Search and rescue manual on organization and management SAR coordinator (SCs) are not normally involved in the conduct of SAR operations.
On-Scene Coordinator (OSC)
when two or more SAR units are working together on the same mission, there is sometimes and advantage if one person is assigned to co-ordinate the activities of all participating units. The SAR mission coordinator (SMC) designates this on-scene coordinator (OSC), who may be the person in charge of Search and Rescue Unit (SRU), ship or aircraft participating in a search, or someone at another nearby facility in apposition to handle on-scene coordinator (OSC) duties. The person in charge of the first SAR facility to arrive at the scene will normally assume the function of on0scene coordinator until the SAR mission coordinator (SMC) directs that the person be relieved. Conceivably, the on-scene coordinator (OSC) may have to assume SAR mission coordinator (SMC)duties and actually plan the search if the on-scene coordinator becomes aware of a distress situation directly and communication cannot be established with an Rescue Coordinator Centre (RCC). Depending on needs and qualification, include any of the following:
1. Assume operational coordination of all SAR facilities on-scene;
2. Receive the search action plan based on prevailing environmental conditions and keeping the SAR mission coordinator (SSMC);
3. Provide relevant information to the other SAR facilities;
4. Implementation the search action plan;
5. Monitor the performance of other units participating in the search
6. Coordinate safety of flight issues for SAR aircraft;
7. Make consolidated reports (sitreps) back to the SAR mission coordinator (SMC).
The purpose of the aircraft coordinate (ACO) function is to maintain high flight safety and cooperate in the rescue action to make it more effective. The aircraft coordinator (ACO) function should be seen as a cooperating, supporting and advisory service. The aircraft coordinator (ACO) should normally be designated by the SAR mission coordinator (SMC), or if that is not practicable, by the on-scene coordinator (OSC). The aircraft coordinator function will normally be performed by the facility with the most suitable mix of communication means, Radar, GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) combined with training personnel to effectively coordinate the involvement of multiple aircraft in SAR operations while maintaining flight safety. Generally the aircraft coordinator (ACO) is responsible to the SAR mission coordinator (SMC); however, the aircraft coordinator (ACO) work on-scene must be coordinated closely with the on-scene coordinator (OSC), and if no SAR mission coordinator (SMC), or on-scene coordinator (OSC), as the case may be, the aircraft coordinator (ACO) would remain in overall charge of operations.
Duties of the aircraft coordinator (ACO) can be carried out from a fixed-wing aircraft, helicopter, ship, fixed structure such as an oil rig, appropriate land unit. Depending on needs and qualifications, the aircraft coordinator (ACO) may assigned duties that include the following:
a. coordinate the airborne resources in a defined geographical area;
b. maintain flight safety-issue flight information;
c. practice flow planning (example: point of entry and point of exist);
d. prioritize and allocate tasks;
e. coordinate the coverage of search areas;
f. forward radio messages (can be the only duty;
g. it is important that the aircraft coordinator (ACO) is aware of the fact that the participating airborne units, if possible, try to avoid disturbing other participating units with, for example, noise and rotor wind.
Search and Rescue Resources (SAR)
The SAR organization includes all of those agencies which perform distress monitoring, communications, coordination, and response functions. This includes providing or arranging for medical advice, initial medical assistance, or medical evacuation, if necessary. SAR facilities consist of all of the public and private facilities, including cooperating Aircraft, Vessels, other craft and installations operating under coordination of an rescue coordination centre (RCC). In establishing a SAR service, States should use existing facilities to the fullest extend possible. A successful SAR organization usually can be created without having designated. Full-time Search Rescue Unit (SRU)
At list of potential Search and Rescue (SAR) resources is contained in the International Aeronautical and Maritime search and rescue manual on organization and management.
Ship Reporting System
Vessels at Sea, although not always available to participate in extended search operations, are potential Aeronautical and Maritime search SAR assets.
Masters of vessels have a duty to assist other whenever it can be done without endangering the assist in vessel or crew. Various State have implementation ship reporting systems. A ship reporting system enables the SAR Mission Coordinator (SMC) to quickly know the approximate positions, courses, and speed of Vessels in the vicinity of distress situation by means of a surface picture (Surpic), and other information about the vessels which may be valuable, e.g. whether a a doctor is a board masters of vessels should be encouraged to send regular reports to the Authority operating a ship reporting system for SAR. Ship are a key resource for Rescue Coordination Centre (RCC) but requests for them to assist must be weighed against the considerable cost of shipping companies when they do divert to assist. Ship reporting systems enable rescue to quickly identify the capable vessel which will be least harmed by a diversion, enabling other vessel in the vicinity to be unaffected.
Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
After 31 January 1999, ship subject to the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) convention should be outfitted with certain communications equipment, collectively referred to as the shipboard portion of the Global Maritime Distress and Safely System (GMDSS). Is intended to provide automatic alerting and locating with minimal delay, a reliable network for SAR communications, integration of satellite and terrestrial communications, and adequate frequencies in all maritime bands.
Virtually all commercial aircraft on international routes are under positive control by air traffic services (ATS) units when they are airborne. ICAO has linked ATS units into a world-wide system. Consequently, there usually is little delay from the onset of an international commercial aircraft emergency unit SAR agencies notified, and there is often no need for an extended search if an aircraft on domestic routes and general aviation aircraft may be under positive control, which can result in delayed reporting of their emergencies. In some States, aircraft may not take-off unless they have field plan and been granted clearance from the appropriate authorities.
Awareness and Initial Action
When the SAR system first becomes aware of an actual or potential emergency, the information collected and the initial action taken are often critical to successful SAR operation. It be assumed that in each incident there survivors who will need assistance and whose chances of survival are reduced by the passage of time. The success of a SAR operation depends on the speed with which the operation is planned and carried and carried out. Information must be gathered and evaluated to determine the nature of the distress, the appropriate emergency phase, and what action should be taken. Prompt of all available information by the Rescue Coordination Centre (RCC) or Rescue Sub-Centre (RSC) is necessary for through evaluation, immediate decision on the rest course of action, and a timely activation of SAR facilities to make it possible to:
A. locate, support and rescue persons interest in the shortest possible time;
B. use any contribution survivors may still be able to make towards their own rescue while they are still capable of doing so.