Aviation is unique and sophisticated which as a unifying force between countries
of different cultures and degrees of technical advancement. The proposed school
of aviation will established in Somalia. As soon as possible after the unrest of civil
war end. The Air Transport Industry has certainly assumed its place and
pre-eminence in the economic and social development of the people. This program
for aviation will contribute immensely to the aviation industries and in future
generation of e.g. Somalia in the coming generation.
2- The Subjects
The subjects to be taught in class in an aviation school may be grouped into three
- Educational subject-English language (technical, mathematics, elementary of Sciences.
- Technical theory, not specific to aviation- magnetism, electric’s principal and Structures.
- specialist aviation subjects- aviation, flight rules and procedures, navigation,
flight planning, aircraft performance, principles of flight, (aerodynamics) and
3- Learning Basic Flight Training
The simulator cal also be useful for practicing basic flight techniques, including
Take-off-Landings, as well as skills such as maintaining Altitude, Headings, as
Airspeed, this is an area where the Instructor should be more closely involved.
While Simulator physics models have become very advanced in recent years, they
still do not perfectly match the real world. More-over the view on a
the view on a two dimensional screen is a bit different from what one sees in a real
three-dimensional cockpit. An instructor who is familiar with the simulator being used
will be assist the Student in understanding the simulator’s weak areas, so as to picking
Requirement For Entry Training Pilot School
The minimum educational qualification for entry should be set at the level a good average
secondary or high school student can except to achieve.
The minimum age of entry should be consistent with the educational qualifications
demanded generally Eighteen (18 year) seems to have become recognized as the lower
limit. A maximum upper age limit should also be set and should kept fairly low. Firstly,
particularly on pilot courses, success in training is more easily achieved by young students,
and some people in their late twenties (20 year) or thirties (30 year) may find it surprisingly
difficult to learn to fly the standard required, secondly, a high age limit may encourage
some applicants from those who are just seeking to change career, having become
dissatisfied with their first choice.
REGULATION OF INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORT
Is regulation undertaken by a State within its Territory in its exercise of Sovereignty
over that territory and Airspace about it.
The national regulation extends to both domestic and international air services and to
both foreign air carriers. The national regulation of international air service must take
into account the State’s international obligations pursuant to bilateral and multilateral
agreements and arrangements and should give due regard to the actions and concerns
of other States.
The particular aims of national regulation in the field of international air transport vary
from State to State and influenced by national economic policies, territorial size and
location, the degree of national development, domestic and international politics.
Structure of National Regulation
The structure of national regulation of international air transport has: An organizational
component consisting of a Governmental entity or entities which the State’s air transport
authorities as well as certain other non-aviation Governmental bodies, the actions of which
affect international air transport. A legal component embodied in the pertinent national
laws, rules and regulations, judicial and administrative decisions, licences and/or permits
and declared policies as well as relevant international agreement to which the State is a
The Chicago Conference Documents
The Chicago conference, held from 1 November to 7December 1944, inter-alia three
major agreements of significance to the multilateral regulation of international transport,
the most important being the Convention on International Civil Aviation, signed at
Chicago on 7 December 1944, also known simply as the Chicago Convention (Doc-7300)
which provided the fundamental legal foundation for the regulation of World Civil
Aviation, is the constitution of ICAO, and contains several Articles which bear on the
Economic regulation of international air transport including:
- Article -1 on State sovereignty over-airspace;
- Article 5- on non-scheduled flights;
- Article 6- on scheduled air service;
- Article 7- on cabotage (nautical, coastal navigation-or shipping;
- Article 15- on airport and similar charges;
- Article 17- to 21 on nationality and registration of aircraft;
- Article 22 on facilitation;
- Article 23 and 24 customs and immigration;
- Article 37- and 38 so far standard recommended practices regarding facilitation
Concerned. Parts of article on the aims and objectives ICAO.
- Article 77 to 79 on joint operating organizations;
- Article 81 and 83 on the registration of agreements.
Two amendments to the Chicago Convention, which are of air transport regulatory
significance are Article 83bis.
Air Transport Market Access
By any particular air carrier or carriers, is the nature and extent of the basic rights (with
any accompanying conditions and limitations) that are granted/ authorized by the relevant
governmental authorities ( and identified and discussed in this chapter) as well as
ancillary rights such as those governing product distribution. Air transport market
penetration by any particular air carrier or carriers is the extent to which access is actually
used to obtain and traffic. Rights can be subject to numerous constraints (outside the
scope of this chapter) such as aircraft range and payload limitations, airport congestion
and distribution system problems.
Air Carrier Capacity
Air carrier capacity is the quantitative measure of air transport services offered
or proposed to be offered by one or more air carrier in a city-pair or country pair
market or over a route. It may expressed in terms of aircraft size, aircraft type
number of seats and/or cargo space (by weight and/or volume), frequency of
operation, or some combination of such terms.
Air Carrier Tariffs
Air carrier tariffs are one of the three major elements in the regulation of international
Air transport (the other two marketing access and capacity), although their regulatory
importance has gradually decrease along with the general trend of air transport
liberalization. ICAO has done extensive work on Tariffs and developed relevant
guidance which is reflected in part 4 ( International Fares and Rates) of policy and
guidance material on the economic regulation of international air transport (Doc-9587).
This chapter lists some of the reason why State regulate tariffs, defines the term
‘’Tariff’’, provides information on different types and characteristics of tariff including
Terms and expressions used by Airline industry, describes methods for establishing
Tariffs as well as international and national regulatory mechanisms and discuss some
Key tariff issues.
Air Carrier Ownership
State’s regulate air carrier ownership and control at the international level primarily in terms of
discretionary criteria for Licensing Air Carrier to use the market access rights granted under the relevant
air services agreements. At the national level regulation of air carrier ownership and control can have
implementations both for discretionary criteria and for other aspects of international air transport.
Air Cargo or Freight: refers to any property carried on an aircraft other than mail, stores and passengers baggage/see Annex-9 to the Convention on international Civil Aviation). The term air cargo is also used in a broader sense by the Airline industry to mean any property (freight, express and mail) transported by air except baggage.
An All Cargo Service
is an air service that carriers cargo only, whether scheduled or
Non-scheduled. In the field of international air transport, attention is often paid to passenger air services, yet air cargo is also an important component of air transport. To many States, air cargo services are important to their
National development and international trade, for example, Land -locked Countries and States whose main export commodities are high value goods or perishable.
IATA Currency Conversion System
Some Airline and air transport intermediaries (e.g. Travel Agents, freight forwarders) often have to make conversions from one currency into another when calculating international passenger fares and cargo
Rates, IATA has developed rules and procedures for making currency conversion.
The IATA Currency conversion system
enables fares or rates to be quoted in one single currency for
Multi sector trip/shipment involving one more Airlines, or for trip originating in another country.
Currency Conversion System for Cargo Rates and Charges
IATA introduced the system in 1984, which enables all cargo rates and charges to be expressed in Local
Selling currencies. When it is necessary to combine or compare cargo rates expressed in different currencies for rate construction purposes, such rates are converted into a common unit, United Stats Dollars, by using the exchange rates published by the IATA Clearing House, the necessary calculations are performed in Dollars. END.
AIRPOR SYSTEM MANAGEMENT
An airport is a location where Aircraft such as Airplanes, Helicopters, and Blimps take-off
and land. Aircraft may stored or maintained at an airport. An airport consist of at least one
surface such as Runway, a Helipad, or Water for take-offs and landings, and can often includes
buildings such as Hangar and Terminal Buildings. Large airports may have fixed base operator services, SeaplaneDocks and Ramps
air traffic control passenger facilities such as restaurants
and lounges, and emergency services. A Military airport is known as an Airbase or Air station.
The terms Airfield, Airstrip, and Aerodrome may also be used to refer.
2- Airport Ownership and Operation Section
Most of the World’s airports are Owned by local, regional, or national Government bodies. The
body within an organization has Authority to make, and the power to enforce Laws (is a system
of rules, usually enforced through set Institutions), regulations, or rules. Typically, the Government
refers to a Civil Government which can be local, national or international, or other formal
organizations are also governed by internal bodies. Such bodies may called boards of Directors,
Manger, or Governor or Administration.
3- Airport Structures Section
Airport are divided into Landside and Airside areas.
Areas include parking lots, public transportation and access roads.
Areas include all areas accessible to Aircraft, including Runways, Taxiways, and Ramps. Access
from Landside areas to airside areas is tightly controlled at most airports. Passengers on commercial flights access areas through terminals, where they can Purchase Tickets, Clear Security,
Check or Claim Luggage and board aircraft.
4- Airport Designation and Naming Section
Airports are uniquely represented by International Air Transport Association (IATA) Airport Code and ICAO Airport. Code or location Indicator (Doc 7910) is a Four (4)- Letter Alphanumeric Code
Airport Around the World.
These Codes are defined by the International Civil
Aviation Organization and published in ICAO Document (Doc-7910). Airport Codes are often Abbreviated forms of the Common Name of the Airport, such as PHL for Philadelphia International airports. Airports sometimes retain the previous IATA Code when and airport’s name is changed. Rafik Hariri International airport in Beirut retains the IATA Code Bey, from its former name of Beirut International airport (Bey)
Air safety is an important concern in the operation of an airport, and almost every field includes Equipment and procedures for Handling Emergency situations. Commercial airfield include one or more emergency vehicles and their Crew that are specially Equipped for dealing with airfield Accidents, crew and Passenger extractions, and the
Hazards of Highly Flammable Aviation Fuel.
The crews are also trained to deal with situations such Bomb Threats, Hijacking, and Terrorist Activities . The field must be kept Clear of debris using cleaning equipment so that loose material does not become a projective and enter Engine Duct.
Airport Directories Section
Civil Aviation Authority
The Civil Aviation Authority of a country is the national body Governing Civil Aviation. In many
countries, it is simply known as the Civil Aviation Authority, but this is not universally the case.
International coordination of these bodies is undertaken by the U.N. Organization ICAO. These
authorities regulate Civil Aviation activities in their countries. Amongst their diverse responsibilities
are Licensing Pilot, Registering Aircraft, and Certifying Aircraft and Engines Designs as safe for
use. They ensure the Aircraft and Aviation facilities are maintained to a standard sufficient for safe operation.