Aircraft Operations Manual
Preparation of an Operation Manual (Section One)

2-1 Requirements for an operations manual

Annex-6 part-I requires that an operator provide an operations  manual for the use and guidance of operations personnel. The manual must be reserved and amended to keep it current and operations personnel must be made aware of any amendments or revisions. The requirement to provide an operations  manual is an integral part of the operator’s method of control and supervision of flight operations which must be approved by the State of the operator. It follows, therefore, that the operator is required to provide the State a copy of the operational manual and with all revisions amendments The operator must include in the operations manual such material as the State may require.

2-2 Aircraft Operating Manual

This manual provides flight crew members with information and guidance on the technical of airplane, procedural and performance aspects of the operation of airplane. This manual is often provided in two volumes.
One Volume Presents
‘’ in flight  data’’ i.e. limitations normal and  emergency checklist, normal and emergency procedures and amplification of these, procedures, and in-flight data.


The Second Volume Presents

Airplane system description and flight performance data for use in flight planning. All data and information in this     manual  must  comply with the flight manual, where applicable, in general, the original to these manuals rests with the aircraft manufacture. Operators may develop additional instructions. Procedures or guidance to be inserted in this manual. Such operator developed additions should be clarification or expansion of the manufacture’s material, where necessary.

2-3 Organization of the operations Manual

In selecting a format for the operations manual, the primary criterion is that the manual be easily used and understood. The volume size should make the manual easy to handle on the flight deck, at least for those volumes that are part of the airplane library. The quality of the paper and of the printing and reproduction of the text and illustrations should  be such that the material is readable under which is easily amendable. e .g loose-leaf in a ring binder.

Chapter-3
3-2 Flight Operation Manager

The flight operation manager is responsible to the company chief executive officer for the development and implementation, of flight operations policy. In particular, it should be his responsibility to ensure that in developing a company plan, full recognition is given to the need for safe and efficient operations. He is also responsible for ensuring that operations are in compliance with all relevant regulations, both in the State registry and when operating into or over territory of other States. In this respect, it is his duty to liaise with the local civil aviation authority and with the appropriate authorities of other States. The flight operation manger is responsible for liaison and coordination with other departments. He is also responsible for approving the contents of the operations manual and ultimately for authorizing all flight operations.

An Operator’s Terms of Reference
Responsibilities

  1. Flight operations section
  2. The flight operations is responsible to the managing director:

For:

    1. All flying and operational standards of all aircraft operated
    2. Supervision, organization, manning and efficiency of the following departments within flight operations:

All aircraft flight operations

    • Cabin services
    • Crew scheduling an roster
    • Flight watch
    • Navigation and performance
    • air crew emergency training
    • Flight safety committee
    • Flight operations at out stations
      • The standards of the operations manual governing each type of aircraft
      • Liaison with the Director Civil Aviation (DCA) on matters  concerning the operations of all company aircraft, including any variations to the air operator’s certificate
      • The supervision of , and the production and amendment of the operations manual and the air crew training manual
      • Liaison with any company agencies which may effect company operations
      • Ensuring that company operations are conducted in accordance with current legislation and company instructions
      • Ensuring that the roster section complies with both company and current legislation concerning the roster of air crew, and that crew members are kept informed of any changes to this legislation
      • The receipt and action of flight information  circular
      • The dissemination of aircraft safety information, both internal and external, in internal in conjunction  with the flight safety committee
      • The administrative arrangements for air crew  training course (both recurrent and conversion)
      • All matters relating to flight time limitations.

      Chapter-4-13

      4-13 Annex-6, part I requires that an operator establish and maintain a training program which  enables  crew members to act in the most appropriate manner to minimize the sequences of  acts on unlawful interference. Annex-17 security safeguarding International Civil Aviation  against  act of lawful interference-States that States shall require operators to establish security program and to apply them in proportion to the threat. It is advice. When establishing a program, to seek the advice and guidance of the National Civil Aviation security committee or the authority responsible for national civil aviation programs. The Annex also recommends that States require operators to include in their security programs measures and procedures to ensure safety on board an airplane when persons are being carried in the custody of law enforcement officers or other authorized persons. Annex-6-part I requires that an operator establish maintain a training program which enables crew members to act in the most appropriate manner to minimize the consequences of act of unlawful interference. Guidance is given in the ICAO training manual (Doc- 7192). Part a-3.

      Chapter-5
      Flight Crew Fatigue and Flight Time limitation

      5-1 Requirements for Rules
      Annex-6, part I requires that an operator formulate rules limiting the flight time and flight duty periods of flight crew  members. These rules shall also make provision for adequate rest periods and shall be such as to ensure that fatigue occurring either in a flight or successive flights or accumulate over a period of  time due to these and other risks, does not danger the safety of flight. The rules shall be approved by the State of the operator and included in the operations manual. The Annex also notes that the standard does not preclude a State from establishment regulations specifying the limitations applicable to flight crew members.

       1-7a policy and Administration Manual
      This manual should contain information:

      • Operator’s organization
      • Management structure

      Department responsibilities and authority/ with particular reference flight operation area) information on the policies and objectives of the operator should included on the regulations of the State of the operator and on the applicable regulations, requirements of other States. The manual should contain operational policies related procedures, guidance information.

      17b Aircraft operating Manual
      This manual provides flight crew member with information and guidance on technical procedural, performance aspects of operation airplane.

               The manual Provided in two Volumes
      Volume-I
                  Presents in flight  data limitation, normal and emergency checklist, normal and emergency procedures amplification in flight performance.

      Volume II           
      presents airplane system description, flight data performance, in flight planning, all data and information. This manual must comply flight manual where applicable
      In General
      Responsibility for developing and issuing amendments, revision, manual rests with aircraft manufacturer, operator developed additional instructions, procedures or guidance, clarification or expansion manufacture material.
      17c minimum Equipment List
      These list are supply by the aircraft manufacturer in the flight manual or aircraft operating manual, many operator extract the list and present them as a separate volume, operator may include additional restriction the list for his own operation.

      1-7d Training Manual
      This manual should contain information on the training policy and requirement of the operator. It should contain guidance on standard of training will apply. The manual may divided into number of sections, on general guidance, dealing with specific airplane. Manual should contain information on syllabi of training course:
      Both ground and flight

      • Minimum standard and experience
      • Training and testing recurrent required
      • Role and duties of staff for flying training, checking of testing should be included.


1-7e Airplane Performance Manual

Airplane performance data are published:
In flight Manual
Normally expanded-version is published in the aircraft operating manual, also manual contains –take-off/landing data for each usable runway-destination, alternative aerodrome.

Route Guide

Route guide should contain information relating- communication facilities navigation aids, air traffic services, aerodrome normally the route guide contains required:

    • En-route charts;
    • Charts aerodrome along route;
    • Charts carried in route
    • For destination alternative aerodrome.

    1-7f  Emergency Evacuation procedure Manual

    This manual should contain information an emergency evacuation procedures. Each airplane type for:

    • Both flight and cabin crew;
    • Specific airplane procedures. The manual should contain general safety and survival information appropriate to the area in which operation take place.

         
    1-7g Security Manual

    This manual should contain information an procedures and legal requirement pertaining security matters. Also manual should contain information guidance on crew members’ response and authority in relation to management of acts of unlawful interference also should material- carriage of under escort. Company and State regulations on carriage of weapons on board- including in flight security officer, sky marshals. Airplane search procedure checklist required by Annex 6- part I.

    SOMALI  FLIGHT  PILOT TRAINING  SCHOOL

    Reference – ICAO Document (Doc-9401-An/921

    Subject--- Training equipment.

    • Aircraft Types

    Even the smallest aircraft, be they Airplane or Helicopters, are expensive to buy and operate; in the interests of keeping initial investment and sequent running cost to a minimum, the basic Ab-Initio. Aircraft should be as small and light and low powered  as is compatible with the training of professional Pilots.

    • Basic Stage Training Airplane

    the following comprehensive table list the requirements for the ideal  Ab- initio trainer.
    It is doubtful if an airplane meeting all these requirements is available, and some degree of comprise will be necessary.

      • Conventional control system with good handling qualities.
      • An engine of at least 100 horse power (ph) with conventional engine.
      • Cruise speed of at least 100 knots (KTS) true airspeed (TAS).
      • Fuel for at least three hours flight ( 3 hours) with two crew.
      • Air/ground/air communication, intercom and  ADF (automatic directional find) or VOR or both.
      • Airplane such as the Piper to Cessna-150 and Cessna 172 or Piper warrior.

      3- Synthetic Flight Training (Simulator)
      Synthetic flight training should be, and almost certainly will be, a requirement in the curricula   of approved pilot training school.

      4- Training Aids
      The term ‘’ training aids’’ compress the books and other devices, which support and supplement the work of instructors is carrying out their task.

      5- Text Books and Lecture Notes
      Everything that a student needs to know to complete the course satisfactory should be available. The text books may be available which cover some, or even a large part.

      6- Chief Ground Instructor (C.G.I )
      Selection, training and motivation of the ground instructional team is primarily the responsibility of chief ground instructor (C.G.I ).

      7- Ground Instructors
      Although ground instructors do not require current licenses, they should have extensive experience in aviation, as pilot or navigator or engineer, as is appropriate.

      8- Flying Instructional Staff
      To the student pilots in a flying school, the flying instructors are a pre-imminent group. The personal and operating examples which the instructors set and the quality of the instruction they import are key factors in determining the standards achieved by  the school.

      9- Selecting of Flying Instructors
      The supply of experienced, fully qualified and enthusiastic flying instructors for an ab-initio flying training school is often inadequate. It is just at the time when the school is being established that the local airlines may also be actively recruiting pilots.

      10- Medical Standard
      All professional pilots are required to have a class I medical assessment as laid down in Annex I.
      Airplane
      Student Pilot License (SPL)

      Age – not less than 16 years.

      1. Medical Class Ii.
      2. Total flight hours 40
      3. Simulator 5 hours.
      4. Cross country 5 hours, distance 150 NM (200 Km).

      Note= after complete 40 hours will be private pilot license (PPL).
      12- Private Pilot License (PPL)

      Age- not less than  17 years.

      1. Medical class II.
      2. Total flight hours not less than 40 hours.
      3. Solo flight not less than 10 hours.
      4. Cross country 5 hours using visual.
      5. Using radio navigation aids.

              13- Commercial Pilot License (CPL)

        1. Age- not less than 18 years.
        2. Medical class I.
        3. Total flight hours not less than 200 hours as pilot-in command 100 hours.
        4. Or in case of a course approved training pilot- in command 70 hours.
        5. Cross country 20 hours distance 300 NM (540 Km) with full stop.
        6. Landing at two different aerodromes shall be made of instrument instruction time 10 hours of which is not more than 5 hours may be instrument ground time.
        7. To be exercise at night flight time 5 hours with 5 take-off and 5 landing as pilot-in command.
        8. To act as pilot-in command.

        14- Airline Transport Pilot License (ATPL)

        • Age- not less than 21 years.
        • Medical class I.
        • Total flight hours not less than 1500 hours.
        • Shall have to maximum of 100 hours, which is not more than 25 hours shall have been acquired in a flight procedure trainer or basic instrument flight trainer have completed in airplanes not less than 250 hours either as pilot-in command 100 hours.
        • Cross country flight 200 hours but not less than 100 hours as pilot-in command or as co-pilot performing.
        • 75 hours of instrument time, of which not more than 30 hours instrument ground time.
        • Procedure and maneuvers for IFR (instrument flight rule) operations under normal, abnormal and emergency conditions including simulated engine failure ect.

        15-Educational Qualifications
        The work of a pilot or maintenance engineer requires intelligence, technical comprehension and a good standard of literacy and arithmetic skill. It is doubt if particularly high education qualifications are necessary; certainly not the university degrees sometimes demand. My people have become successful pilots and engineers without any formal academic qualifications at all. Without any educational specifications, however, the flood of applications may be unmanageable. The majority of applicants will have undertaken some formal secondary or higher education. Those who are intelligent, well motivated and capable of sustained hard work, will have achieved success and the appropriate qualification in their school careers. The minimum educational qualification for entry should be set at the level a good average secondary or high school student can expect to achieve. Pre-entry requirements should lay stress on and give preference to candidates whose courses of study emphasized science and mathematic; but should not completely exclude those with backgrounds in arts and classics.